­­What'sNEW in Cosmic Ancestry, beginning Jul 2022

What'sNEW

12 Aug 2022
...hundreds, maybe even 1000 times more bright galaxies in the early universe than astronomers anticipated have been seen with the James Webb Telescope. Further observations will reveal more, but astronomers are already wondering if the standard model of cosmology may need an overhaul. For cosmic ancestry this is a welcome development, because the standard model, a once-only inflationary big bang, would sterilize the universe.
"Webb telescope reveals unpredicted bounty of bright galaxies in early universe" by Daniel Clery,
Science, 09 Aug 2022.
The End... cites other issues for the standard big bang.

James Lovelock. He died 26 July 2022 in Dorset England.
28 Jul 2022
James Ephraim Lovelock died, 26 July 2022. He is best known for Gaia, his theory that life engineers the environment to make it suitable for life. His early work also helped the world become aware of environmental dangers like global warming and the Antarctic ozone hole. In his latest years, the environment became his preoccupation, as seems appropriate. He also influenced my thinking, because if life is to evolve by cosmic ancestry, Gaia's environmental engineering is essential. Cyanobacteria must make oxygen, all the exposed iron must rust before oxygen can accumulate, ozone (and methane?) must shield out harmful radiation, carbon must be buried, etc. But he deserves to be known by everyone.
James Lovelock, Whose Gaia Theory Saw the Earth as Alive, Dies at 103 by Keith Schneider, The New York Times, 26 Jul 2022. ...the maverick British ecologist whose work was essential to today's understanding of man-made pollutants and their effect on climate and who captured the scientific world's imagination with his Gaia theory, portraying the Earth as a living creature, died on Tuesday, his 103rd birthday, at his home in Dorset, in southwest England.
Thanks Thanks for a first alert, Chris Lodewyks and Craig Hutchison.
Gaia has more, with links and updates about Lovelock.

26 Jul 2022
Pictured is Peas, a monument to Gregor Mendel in Brno, the Czech Republic, created by the artist Jaromír Gargulak. A collection of articles in the Gregor Johann Mendel and Modern Evolutionary Biology Special Feature marks the 200th anniversary of the birth of Mendel, an Austrian monk who discovered the genetic mechanism of trait inheritance. Technical advances have brought an accelerating flood of data, most recently, giving us complete genome sequences and expression patterns from any species. Yet, arguably, no fundamentally new principles have been established in molecular biology, and, in evolutionary biology, despite sophisticated theoretical advances and abundant data, we still grapple with the same questions as a century or more ago.

So comments evolutionary biologist Nicholas Barton in the latest issue of PNAS. His article is among nine in an open-access feature about the Austrian monk Gregor Mendel. Born 200 years ago, Mendel did pioneering analysis of trait inheritance among plants, but his work went unknown for forty years. Yet his insights were fruitful and remain valid. He is certainly not to blame if today's theory of evolution is completely stalled. It is disabled by a wrong basic assumption about the mechanism behind genetic advances (which Mendel never considered.)

Evolutionists, including some of these PNAS authors, understand that prokaryotes depend on a huge pangenome for macroevolution, but no one notices the magnitude of that paradigm shift. Nor do they notice that eukaryotes might likewise have access to an enormous pool of genetic potential.

Gregor Johann Mendel and the development of modern evolutionary biology by Nils Chr. Stenseth et al., doi:10.1073/pnas.2201327119, PNAS, 26 Jul 2022.
The "New Synthesis" by Nicholas H. Barton, doi:10.1073/pnas.2122147119, PNAS, 26 Jul 2022.
Genetics of adaptation by Kirsten Bomblies and Catherine L. Peichel, doi:10.1073/pnas.2122152119, PNAS, 26 Jul 2022.
Mendel and Darwin by Andrew Berrya and Janet Browne, doi:10.1073/pnas.2122144119, PNAS, 26 Jul 2022.
Neo-Darwinism: The Current Paradigm has comments on today's theory of evolution.

22 Jul 2022
Synthetic genomics is making rapid progress, as an open-access review confirms in detail. Venter et al. see benefits for medicine, agriculture and related fields, including some advances already reached, like mRNA vaccines. Other benefits will be more difficult to achieve; some are futuristic with unknown implications. The review is comprehensive and informative. Recommended.
"Synthetic chromosomes, genomes, viruses, and cells " by J. Craig Venter et al.,
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2022.06.046, Cell, 21 Jul 2022.
31 May 2010 and 26 Mar 2016: More about Venter et al. and synthetic cells.

The article says nothing directly about evolution, but I still found it revealing. First, a genomically engineered new sequence may be correct, but getting it to function is always difficult, because so many things can go wrong — especially in eukaryotic life. In nature, how would letting darwinian life simply take its course make those things go right? Besides, in nature, chancing upon a new functional sequence of only 100 nucleotides is astronomically unlikely to begin with. Better if the "new" sequence exists already, is delivered by HGT, and appropriate genomic software handles the implementation. Testing and optimization are still subject to neo-darwinian selection. But even with cosmic ancestry, evolution is still time-consuming and dicey.
The Logical End includes related, futuristic speculation of 25 years ago.

18 Jul 2022 What'sNEW about HGT
Insect gene categories - gained from microbes We systematically examined HGT in 218 high-quality genomes of diverse insects and found that they acquired 1,410 genes exhibiting diverse functions ...via 741 distinct transfers from non-metazoan donors. ...We conclude that HGT has been a major contributor to insect adaptation.
"HGT is widespread in insects and contributes to male courtship in lepidopterans" by Yang Li et al., doi:10.1016/j.cell.2022.06.014,
Cell, 18 Jul 2022, (bar graph, right).
"Insects harbor over a thousand genes from microbes, which help them survive", ScienceDaily, 18 Jul 2022.
Also ...two major episodes of historical HGT events have significantly shaped the long-term evolution of land plants. ...our data point to a far greater scope of historical HGT than we currently realize.
HGT in land plants "Major episodes of horizontal gene transfer drove the evolution of land plants" by Jianchao Ma, Shuanghua Wang et al., doi:10.1016/j.molp.2022.02.001 (open access), Moleculer Plant, 02 May 2022 (flowchart example, left).
"Bacteria genes gave ancient plants traits to colonize land", ScienceDaily, 01 Mar 2022.

Horizontal gene transfer provides the programming behind ongoing macroevolutionary advances, according to cosmic ancestry. For prokaryotes, the case is closed, but the evidence is overwhelming for all kingdoms. It's time to recognize a simpler, clearer way for life to find new genes.
Viruses... cites >2,000 examples of HGT, crossing all kingdoms.
10 Mar 2021: summary evidence for prokaryotes.

...DNA is not only moving around the tree of life, but it's moving a lot more frequently than anyone had imagined, and the cases of HGT that have been identified are just a small sample of the total transfers that have taken place over evolutionary time. And most transfers are not retained, according to evolutionary genomicist Antonis Rokas. He is among HGT experts consulted in an open-eyed popular review.
"Horizontal Gene Transfer Happens More Often Than Anyone Thought" by Christie Wilcox,
The Scientist, 05 Jul 2022.
Viruses and Other Gene Transfer Mechanisms cites has many examples.

What we think we know limits our ability to know even more. Ed Yong
"on the wondrous world of animal senses"
Nature Podcast, 01 Jul 2022.
Thanks Thanks, Bob Rock, for mentioning this topic.
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